£150 Million Terminal Building Coming to Leeds Bradford Airport

Northern England’s connectivity could get even better, with Leeds Bradford Airport submitting fresh plans to construct a ‘state-of-the-art’ terminal that aims to improve passenger experience and support economic growth in the region, all while retaining an extremely high level of environmental efficiency.

The plans, due to be submitted in April this year, detail a replacement of an existing scheme and the current building with a three-floor terminal on a new site. If approved, Leeds Bradford Airport will become home to an incredible 34,000 sq mt. terminal, with improved shopping, restaurants, bars, and interiors. With an improved location near to a proposed rail link, the efficiency of passenger transfer can be greatly improved. One of the most significant outcomes of this investment is that Leeds Bradford Airport will be able to meet its net zero carbon emissions target by 2023.

12 years ago Leeds Bradford Airport was sold off by the council in the hope that a private company would be better placed to inject cash into the site and improve services. With the current terminal dating back to 1965, it’s probably about time for a revamp. The owners, AMP Capital, already agreed to a £12 million cash injection, but the airport’s Chief Executive, Hywel Rees was unsatisfied with those plans and went back to the board of AMP to negotiate a new plan and investment figure – £150 million.

Hywel Rees is quoted as saying, “This proposal is not about growing beyond our predicted capacity; it is about meeting the same demand in a more efficient way, with a smaller environmental footprint. We’re confident that a vision will deliver an airport building that is better placed to support out region’s economic growth and become one that Yorkshire can be proud of.”

The airport currently sees 4 million passengers a year, and the expected increase over the next 10 years is 3 million.

The plans are an exciting announcement for both Leeds and Bradford, who will be welcoming greater connectivity and an updated airport. There is an acknowledged need to improve infrastructure around travel to and from the site. Hopefully, this large cash injection is the beginning of an overall rethinking of transportation around the airport. An extra 3 million people per year using Leeds Bradford Airport will certainly place pressure on the roadways.

This initiative to revamp Leeds Bradford Airport falls nicely within the Northern Powerhouse Initiative, aimed at reducing the economic gap between the North and the South. Making this airport a centre of global connectivity is an exciting prospect for the region, and foreshadows future prosperity.


Here at Aspen Woolf, we have a range of investment property options across Northern England, with a special focus on the high growth cities of Leeds and Bradford. Property experts Savills recently published forecast that estimate Yorkshire property prices to grow by 21.6% over the next five years. Have a look at our options to find out how you can capitalise on northern growth.

Why invest in Preston Property in 2020?

Why invest in Preston Buy-to-Let Property: Growth and Economy

Preston is a historic town located in the north western county of Lancashire, about 35 miles from both Liverpool and Manchester. Lancashire is one of the largest local economies in the North of England, currently generating over £23 billion in GVA per annum and supporting nearly 620,000 jobs.

In the 19th century Preston transformed from a small market town into an industrial centre for cotton milling, interestingly becoming the first town outside of London to be lit by gas.

Like many such ex-industrial northern towns, Preston has witnessed a resurgence over the last two decades and officially became a city in 2002. Nowadays the city continues to focus on manufacturing and engineering, being home to major technical manufacturers including BAE Systems. Perhaps not known to many people is that the Nuclear power industry is a major part of the local economy, with energy company EDF operating two nuclear power stations in the area and another private company, Westinghouse Springfield, manufactures the nuclear fuel for the plants.

As well as numerous other important manufacturers, Fox’s Biscuits and Warburton’s to name just two, there are also a number of public sector employers in the area including NHS establishments, one major university (plus several other campuses) and the Lancashire Constabulary

Preston was named as the UK’s most improved city in 2018 by thinktank Demos, which uses a range of measures to assess factors beyond mere economic output – including employment, workers’ pay, house prices, transport, the environment, work-life-balance and inequality. On an index of 42 UK cities, Preston was seen to have improved the most.

Unemployment decreased 3.1% in 2018 year compared with 6.5% in 2014, and improvements above the national average have been felt in health, transport, the work-life balance of its residents, and for the skills among both the youth and adult populations.

Following an economic model borrowed from the US rust-belt city of Cleveland, Preston has used a range of ‘ultra-localist’ policies to boost the economy, including encouraging local procurement by the city’s big players and the development of worker owned cooperative, all believed to have factored in to the first place ranking.


Why invest in Preston Buy-to-Let Property: Regeneration

Preston is part of a tremendous £435 million investment process to improve the city’s infrastructure development. The initiative, called the Preston, South Ribble and Lancashire City Deal, will allow Preston and Lancashire to take forward 4 new road schemes, enabling over 17,000 new homes to be built, freeing up land for new development, and creating more than 20,000 jobs. The plan is expected to add £1bn to the local economy in the next decade.

Another major regeneration initiative is the Stoneygate Framework, a masterplan to regenerate the 25 hectare Stoneygate area of the city centre into an ‘Urban Village’. The Masterplan for the Stoneygate area represents an ambitious programme which, if substantially implemented, will radically transform this part of Preston. The area has the potential to deliver 1600 new homes as well as commercial and other floorspace.

Why invest in Preston Property in 2020? Aspen Woolf

Why invest in Preston Buy-to-Let Property: Property and Rental Growth

Preston is actually the third largest City in the North West and offers a number of options to suit all investors. For those interested in the BTL market, figures from Zoopla state that over the last 5 years prices have increased by a substantially healthy 13.14% over the last five years.

But what next? In their Residential Property Forecast, industry experts Savills predict the North West to be the number one highest growth region in the UK, rising by 24% over the next five years. With the aforementioned regeneration initiatives and the growing economies belonging to Manchester and Liverpool encapsulating other areas of the region, not to mention attracting commuters, Preston has the longevity and growth potential that UK property investors look for.

Of course, capital growth is only one side of the investor’s coin. Rental yields in the centre of Preston are well above the UK average, in excess of 7%.

Why invest in Preston Buy-to-Let Property: Solid Student Population and University Employers

There are three Universities in and around Preston, including UCLan, Lancaster University and Edge Hill. UCLan is located in the centre of Preston, and employs 3,000 staff and is home to over 30,000 students. Graduate retention is a focus of northern cities as they fight to retain the talent that their local universities have nurtured. Figures from 2014/15 suggest that Preston’s graduate retention rate is 22%.

With nearby Liverpool and Manchester also highly popular amongst young people and retaining more and more of their university’s students, more demand is created amongst affordable commuter locations.

 Why invest in Preston Buy-to-Let Property: Summing Up

The North West is officially the top location for property capital growth forecasts over the next 5 years. Preston is certainly going to benefit from this enormous growth, thanks to huge regeneration and infrastructure projects. Now is the time to invest before prices shoot up.

Keep an eye out for our upcoming Preston development, offering luxury city centre apartments.

University Cities Offer The Best Returns for Property Investors

Every year thousands of people flock to university towns in search of opportunities, but it isn’t just the students that can benefit from what a university city has to offer. Development and growth provides a wealth of investment possibilities for the surrounding areas; and it just so happens that the best rental yields on offer tend to be within easy reach of a university. This post will take a look at our top picks for university cities offering the best returns.


According to data collated by TotallyMoney, six of the twenty top rental yield earning postcodes were in Liverpool last year. The world famous docks are being revamped whilst protecting the Docks’ World Heritage status, there is residential development springing up as part of the new Paddington Village, and the development of a new Creativity District will house some of the many vibrant and successful creative businesses that Liverpool boasts.

Liverpool John Lennon Airport saw 5 million passengers in 2018 and has been increasing the numbers of flights and routes available. The coach park is expanding to encourage more domestic tourism and London is reachable in just over 2 hours by train. There are even plans to build a new cruise terminal! The University of Liverpool attracts 35,000 students, including 8000 from around the world, many of whom will choose to make Liverpool their home post-graduation.


Leeds is a growing city that is seeing an increased interest. Channel 4 have recently moved their headquarters there, and there are plans to bring some of the more historic buildings into media usage. The Tetley contemporary art centre receives regular funding from the Arts Council and has had 600,000 visitors in the past five years. The South Bank regeneration project will see Leeds city centre double in size and two state-of-the-art hospitals are being built to provide for the city’s inhabitants.

Leeds is already home to the busiest train station in the North, with 30,000 daily commuters passing through, and it is set to capitalise on the improved links to London that will come with the HS2 railway. Improved cycling and pedestrian routes will make it easier for the students from the four universities and the newly opened Construction College to get around whilst also making the city more user-friendly for visitors. Leeds is thriving, and with rental yields of up to 7.92% it could really boost your buy-to-let portfolio.


Another city set to benefit from the HS2 route is Sheffield. The fourth largest city in Britain, Sheffield has two universities and has an enviable music scene. It is also the greenest city in Europe, which could be why it attracts such a large number of graduates and is seeing increasing numbers of international students enrolling each year. The population is growing; there is a predicted increase of almost 15% in the next 15 years. As new residents arrive and regeneration projects complete, the current rental yields of up to 7.63% could skyrocket.

The historic Parkwood ski village is facing a revamp, with plans to develop it into a sports and leisure space to complement the range of outdoor activities that the Peak District provides just half an hour drive away. The redevelopment of retail areas is also attracting vast amounts of investment, for example the Moors Markets host over 90 independent businesses as well as established chains and restaurants.


Bolton may not be the first city you think of when considering bustling university cities but you can expect high rental yields, and that’s even before they’ve completed the billion-pound regeneration of the city centre. The night-life is thriving, transport links to major cities like Liverpool and Manchester are quick and convenient and the cost of living is relatively low. The university currently has around 11,000 students on campus who consistently rate it highly for student satisfaction, which will no doubt help them in meeting their aim of 20,000 students in Bolton for the 2020 intake. After all, they’ll need new students to populate the new bioscience learning spaces and to utilise the Bolton One health, leisure and research centre. As a city it is very much up-and-coming, making it a great site for property investment.


Bradford boasts a young and multicultural population. It is a UNESCO city of film thanks to its rich heritage, and is relaunching it’s famous film festival next year. The Townscape Heritage Scheme is investing millions in protecting and restoring historical buildings and there are several commercial developments appearing as part of the M62 corridor. As well as being well-connected by road, Bradford has two airports within an hours distance and the Bradford interchange houses coach, rail and bus facilities. With so many people building their lives in Bradford there is a sustained demand for rental property.


Manchester has the largest student population in the UK, with 40,000 students and almost every country of the world represented. As such, it attracts a significant amount of foreign investment and has a number of confirmed large-scale developments planned. They include a new creative space called The Factory – a city centre home for opera, art, music and community – that will attract up to 850,000 people per year, as well as laying new tracks and completing a huge overhaul of the railway. With so much more to come, Manchester looks set to remain a firm favourite for tenants and investors alike.


Sunderland is another hidden gem. The university has several campuses and has recently seen the arrival of a brand new School of Medicine. It is renowned for providing opportunities for under-represented students to study and has a proven track record for graduate employment. With miles of beautiful beaches, a Metro system servicing the Tyne and Wear region and a huge commitment to the regeneration of the Riverside district, Sunderland will continue to offer great returns for buy-to-let investors.

There are many great reasons to build a buy-to-let portfolio in university cities but these six locations tick all of the boxes with their great transport links, thriving communities and drastic plans for improvement and growth. These desirable cities will have no shortage of potential tenants in the years to come, making them ideal investments for those looking to buy, let, and then reap the returns.

As Demand Continues to Outstrip Supply, Rental Prices Could Skyrocket

Increased Rental Demand Could Mean Rent Will Rise

According to the latest report from the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS), the number of active renters searching for properties continues to outstrip supply. With a predicted 15% increase in rental prices by 2023, RICS detail that rental supply has seen a consistent fall for nearly two years, even with the increase in demand for rental properties.

Last year saw changes to mortgage tax reliefs for landlords which, by 2020 will be restricted massively, impacting small-scale landlords heavily.  

RICS Policy Manager, Abdul Choudhry casts his opinion:

“Withdrawing tax breaks that small landlords relied on, placing an extra 3% on second home stamp duty, and failing to stimulate the corporate build-to-rent market, has understandably had an impact on supply. 

“Ultimately, the government must consider the impact of its policies, and if the wish is to move away from the private rented sector, it must provide a suitable alternative.” 

As Demand Continues to Outstrip Supply, Rental Prices Could Skyrocket Aspen Woolf

The survey goes on to mention that the South West of England, especially in areas such as Exeter, will see the highest increase in rents. Other regions experiencing ‘mini-booms’ are Edinburgh, Birmingham and commuter belt towns. 

Birmingham is a particularly interesting example; rental supply is down and there are presently 5% fewer homes to let than there were two years previously, according to the Countrywide rental index.

The change began in April 2016 when a stamp duty surcharge for additional properties was introduced. Although rental supply has continued to be strong in the North of England, the South has seen a decrease in supply, with the North seeing 19% more properties available to rent than 3 years ago, whereas the South saw a 16% decrease in available rental properties.

This decrease in available properties to rent in the South may, in part be due to the result of longer tenancies as more and more tenants decide to settle down and take advantage of their locality.  

Manchester and Birmingham are still seeing rental under supply as demand escalates rapidly.

Birmingham is to expect a population rise of 171,000 to a total 1.3 million people by 2039 while experts predict that the city will need a further 100,000 homes over the next two decades.

As cities such as Birmingham see their infrastructure improve and large commercial investment in the city, this equates to a large number of tenants scoping out rental opportunities to take advantage of. 

As Demand Continues to Outstrip Supply, Rental Prices Could Skyrocket Aspen Woolf

Another factor that is increasing tenant demand in the area is the arrival of HS2, the high-speed railway connecting areas such as the West Midlands to the capital in a fraction of previous journey times. What is now a one hour and 21-minute journey, once the HS2 is introduced, will be slashed to 49 minutes, making it a viable commute. This gives tenants the attractive option of the high salaries enjoyed in the South, coupled with the affordable rent of the Midlands.

The number of empty homes in the UK is also contributing to rental increase. Standing at an estimated property value of £50bn, empty properties make up a large proportion of the UK’s property market, with the number rising for the first time in 10 years.

The number of empty homes in the UK now stands at around 205,293, an increase of 2.6% compared to the previous year, according to a report by HouseSimple.

Locations include London with 20,237 empty properties, Birmingham with 4,280, Bradford comes in at 3,931 and Liverpool has 3,889 vacant homes.

There may be no particular reason for this trend, although the aptly named ‘buy-to-leave’ landlords are considered to be an influential element. It goes like this: a landlord buys a property, leaving it vacant while waiting for the value to go up before selling. Local councils are taking steps to curb these cases by levying higher rates of council tax on properties that sit empty for extended periods of time. 

Government plans to ease rules of making use of existing land that already has property on it, for example converting empty shops into flats should help relieve the issue with an aim of making better use of brownfield sites and building upwards instead of outwards. New planning rules are making this easier to happen, affording minimum densities around transport hubs and city centres so that a greater number of properties can be developed in places with the highest demand.

Kent Reliance, the private banking company, forecast that the rental market will carry on to professionalise as it connects the supply gap, developing the service between landlords and tenants as less experienced landlords exit the market. 

To date, 31% of landlords now make a full-time living from investing in properties, compared to three years ago when the figure was 26%. 

With a greater number of landlords now functioning as a business, purchasing properties as a limited company, there is greater opportunity for them to offset their mortgage interest costs against tax. 

The data from Kent Reliance demonstrates that 72% of mortgage applications came from a limited company, more than twice the rate seen a couple of years ago.

Andy Golding, CEO of Kent Reliance states:

“A housing market with dwindling supply of rental accommodation yet growing demand would, without a significant rise in affordable housing, provide the worst of all worlds for tenants: higher rents, with less choice and security, hampering their ability to save to buy a home.”

A 15% rise in rents for tenants is pushing forward essential economic growth in areas across the UK plus a boost in regeneration to establish more desirable locations. With rising rental yields and steady capital growth, the market is in a strong position.

Aspen Woolf is an award-winning property investment company established in 2005 with offices in the UK and the UAE. Experts in wealth building opportunities for investors of all levels, we believe that through integrity, experience and quality of service we stand out from the crowd. Be it for buy-to-let investments, cash buying of property or rentals, we are here to guide you every step of the way.


House and Rental Prices on the Rise

As the latest figures from HM Land Registry reveal, the average UK house price now stands at £230,292 while the average monthly rent is £959. Let’s take a look at the history of the UK property buying and rental market, the areas with the highest increase and the reason why house and rental prices continue to be on the rise.

A brief history of house price fluctuation:

  • 2007 saw an increase of 11%
  • 2009 saw a decrease of 17.4%
  • 2011 showed prices dropping by 0.8%
  • 2015 showed a steady increase up to 8%
  • As of July 2019, property prices are showing an average increase of 2.3%

So, why do house prices go up?

When it comes to inflation of house prices, there are a few factors to consider:

Supply and demand

In simple terms, when demand for houses increase, prices follow suit. When demand falls, so do house prices. Several factors can influence supply and demand, these include a lack of available land, lower government investment or regulations against building on green belt areas.

Economic growth

An increase in employment and in turn, a growth in salary will enable more people to invest in housing and therefore increase the demand.


Levels of migration to certain areas in the UK and an increase in population as more people flee the capital’s soaring and unattainable housing prices increase demand in lower-cost areas, forcing house prices up.

Location, location, location

Homes that are situated in a city with a solid infrastructure, including transport links and convenient geographical location within the UK play a strong part in pushing housing prices up.


Demand for housing is only limited by a bank’s decision on offering a mortgage. As long banks are still lending, demand will continue to rise, as will prices. This is what we call ‘Financialisation’ of the housing market.

The Midlands: A Case Study

The East Midlands – home to cities such as Nottingham, Leicester, Lincoln, Derby, Northampton, Mansfield and Chesterfield has seen the highest growth, with house prices increasing on average by 3.2% in 2019. Closely followed by the West Midlands, with cities including Birmingham, Coventry, Wolverhampton and Stoke-on-Trent has seen an overall increase of 2.6% up until July 2019. Due to an employment boom in the Midlands, the area has seen a trend of more home buyers and an increase in average salary which have contributed to the increase in housing prices in the area. The growing population is seen as a key indicator for house price increase in the area. Birmingham is regarded as one of the youngest cities in Europe with 40% of the population being under 25. The five universities in Birmingham are also a contributing factor, having a high level of retention of graduates which is likely to further increase demand of the city’s housing market.

Rentals: Going, going…. going up

A 1% increase in rental prices across the UK was slightly below the prediction from the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (Rics) who, in July 2018 anticipated a 2% increase. Rental prices are generally more stable than house prices, due to a few contributing factors; tenants taking out longer contracts, rent not being affected by interest rates plus more people are buying houses for investment. 

Rental Prices – a retrospective:

  • 2014 saw an increase of 1.5%
  • 2015 saw a further increase of 2.5%
  • 2016 saw a slight decrease of 2.2%
  • 2017 saw a decrease of 1.5%
  • 2018 rent prices stayed steady at 1.5%
  • As of July 2019, rental prices are showing an average increase of 1%

Factors Influencing Rental Increase:

Supply and demand

As with housing prices, when demand increases as does rent.

Local wage levels

Local wage levels determine the feasible maximum the average person can afford to pay in rent and still be able to cover household outgoings such as bills. An example: if the average salary in a city is £1,500 per month, you’re far less likely to be able to find someone willing to fork out £1,200 for a one bedroom flat. On the flipside, if the average wage is around £3,000 per month, the option is more viable.


Geographic factors such as how close you are to a major town, restaurants, parks, schools and shopping malls can all influence the price of your rent.

Economic growth

Investment, employment opportunities and physical capital in an area you may be considering to rent in could also push up the price.


Kitchens and bathrooms are the key factors in elevating rental price, as if these are not up to standard for potential renters, this could be a real deal breaker. On the other hand, if these rooms are of a high standard, this will raise the rental price of the property.

House and Rental Prices on the Rise Aspen Woolf

Preston: A Case Study

Preston – a city that can boast that its people built the first ever motorway, the Preston bypass which opened in 1958, is also home to the highest rental increase in the UK. In Preston, Lancashire rents have risen by 8%, raising the average rent to £378 per month, closely followed by York and Stockport which showed an increase of 7%. Preston has seen quite a turn around with it’s government grant slashed from £30m to £18m in 2013 but with Preston being an ideal commuter option for working in either Liverpool or Manchester, this also determines the inflation seen in the Preston rental market.

Most housing associations cite that rental prices that eat up more than 30% of an individual’s income as unaffordable. For example, an annual gross income of £24,800 would be required for the rental of an average one bedroom flat in England. In Scotland £20,700 is required and in Wales the figure stands at £17,600.  With rental prices being unaffordable in two-thirds of the UK for most young people, this has seen house shares becoming a more practical option.

Aspen Woolf is an award-winning property investment company established in 2005 with offices in the UK and the UAE. Experts in wealth building opportunities for investors of all levels, we believe that through integrity, experience and quality of service we stand out from the crowd. Be it for buy-to-let investments, cash buying of property or rentals, we are here to guide you every step of the way.


How is Leeds becoming a 21st century city?

A growing population and a focus on major industries has set aside Leeds as an unofficial capital city of the North. Regeneration is now propelling Leeds into the future with a number of projects designed to firmly establish the city as a major player in the UK’s economy.

Statistics published last year by the Centre for Cities shows how Leeds has the 3rd quickest growing city centre in the UK between 2002 and 2015. This is a clear mark of how the city is has improved as an urban centre in the last decade. It’s an encouraging statistic too, because it suggests the brain drain phenomenon – where local talent moves away – is not affecting this city. Leeds is a place for families and generations to grow.

Leeds also has one of the youngest populations in the UK, thanks in part to a large student population, but also as a hotbed of employment opportunities for ambitious young professionals. Financial and business services account for 38% of the total Leeds’ output and other key sectors include retail, leisure and the visitor economy, as well as construction, manufacturing and the creative and digital industries – this latter one being a big attraction for the younger generation of workers.

What is it that young professionals like In the 21st century,? A vibrant and stylish urban environment with plenty of opportunity to enjoy time outside of the 9-5. The Yorkshire Post recently published an article indicating Leeds’ ambition, and need, to become a “24-hour economy” in order to retain a thriving city centre. The key to this is a combination of ambitious city centre residential developments combined with high quality jobs in the service sector. This will drive further investment and regeneration into the area and help to cement Leeds as a prime example of urban living.

One of the best examples of regeneration in Leeds, in fact in Europe currently, is the South Bank project – worth over £350 million and introducing 8,000 new homes and 35,000 new jobs. We’ve written about this incredibly ambitious before – you can have a look at our article here – but the main takeaway is that this project is set to double the economic output to the city centre and will perhaps be the largest contribution to creating a modern urban lifestyle in Leeds.

Here are 5 of our top picks, demonstrating how Leeds is changing for modern times:


1. The Holbeck Urban Village

A site of former industrial buildings on the South Bank has undergone an impressive regeneration, modernizing the area yet retaining a sense of past by protecting Listed Buildings. Today, Holbeck hosts about 400 businesses, mainly in the creative and digital sector, and is home to a population of between 600 and 1,000 people in its 15 hectare area.

2. Leeds Bradford Airport Upgrades

A new £12 million terminal building is set to add more facilities, space, retail and food and beverage options to the airport. The changes to boost efficiency and cut delay times, while bringing the airport in line with the city’s broader regeneration, and supporting overall economic growth.

The plans are part of the ‘Route to 2030 Strategic Development Plan’, aiming to increase passenger numbers from four million to seven million by 2030.

3. Innovation at Leeds’ University

A new centre for innovation at Leeds University has opened at a cost of £40 million. Business, health, engineering, data and environmental disciplines are now brought together in the new 6,684 square metre Nexus building, including 60 spacious offices, 12 purpose-built laboratories, 11 meeting rooms and a 120-seat lecture theatre all spread across 6 floors. A £13.5 million fitness and wellbeing centre offers a welcome break from intense research and study.

4. Refurbishment of the Leeds Playhouse

Who doesn’t like a play? The Leeds Playhouse, formerly known as the West Yorkshire Playhouse, has recently undergone a £15.8 million development. Many major changes have been made including redisgning the whole façade to orientate the theatre towards the city, providing better access to the 750 seat Quarry theatre. The new Playhouse also includes a third studio space – the Bramall Rock Void – as well as a new restaurant, café and bar, and improved public spaces.


5. A new icon on the skyline

As an example of prime real estate near the South Bank development, we’ve chosen the fantastic Springwell Gardens development, the next residential project to rival the likes of Candle House and become a part of the ever growing cityscape emerging in Leeds. With a sail like façade and terraced roof gardens, this development of luxury apartments is the renters dream. Strategically located on the important Whitehall Road, home to the new Government Hub, Yorkshire Post, NHS Digital and the HMRC, Springwell Gardens’ location makes it close to many amenities. Leeds Train Station, the city centre and the new £350 million CEG Holbeck urban village Southbank development are just 10 minutes’ walk away.